dinosaure's Blog

Tuyau, the next conduit


If you look into the MirageOS ecosystem, you should already see conduit as a library used by many others projects such as cohttp. However, even if it is used by these projects, at this time, nobody can really explain the goal of Conduit.

Conduit wants to solve 2 problems:

At this stage, it's mostly a pain to use Conduit for several reasons. But one of them is the lack of documentation. Conduit still exists because people copy/paste some piece of codes available in some projects.

However, to understand how Conduit can resolve your URI and give you a way to communicate to your peer, nobody understands how to extend it, how to trace it and finally how to use it.

From that, one year ago (at the MirageOS retreat), we decided to make a new version of Conduit: Tuyau (french word for a pipe). Of course, we don't want to repeat errors of the past. This article want to describe Conduit, and, by this way, Tuyau.

It can be a good opportunity to see some strange OCaml things!

Start a transmission

In many ways, in some projects, we want to start a transmission with a peer. We would like to communicate with it. However, we don't want to handle by hands details to start this transmission. We can take an easy example with ocaml-git.

When we want to push/pull to an other peer, we have 4 possibilities:

  • Use directly the Smart (Git) protocol over TCP/IP It appears when you do: git clone git://host/repo
  • Use the Smart (Git) protocol over SSH It's the usual case when you do: git clone git@host:repo
  • Use the Smart (Git) protocol over HTTP It's when you do: git clone http://host/repo
  • And final case is over HTTP + TLS or, in other words, HTTPS git clone https://host/repo

For all of these cases, we use systematically the same Smart protocol to communicate with a peer1. So we should abstract all of these cases behind something like a common interface.

Another aspect is from the point of view of the maintainer of Git:

  • we don't want to depend on all of these protocols
  • it's sane to not be aware about underlying implementation

The first point is really important. Git is only about Git and we should not depend on a specific implementation of HTTP or a specific implementation of SSH. The current version of Git did the choice to use Curl to be able to communicate with the HTTP protocol. We should be able to be abstracted from that in OCaml and let the user to choose which implementation of HTTP he wants.

The best is to start a transmission and let the user, at another layer, to feed something which aggregate implementation of protocols. By this way, we can let the user to feed Tuyau only with an SSH implementation and, by this way, ensure that Git will start a transmission only with SSH.

The second point is not really valid when we can argue some security points. As a maintainer, we would be able to enforce a transmission over TLS for example. But we will see later how we can solve that into Tuyau.

Finally, we want something like:

val resolve : Tuyau.t -> uri -> Unix.socket

Where Unix.socket is already connected to our peer. Then, we can start to Unix.read and Unix.write on the given socket and speak with the Smart protocol to our peer.

Tuyau.t represents globally our possibilities (our available protocols). At least, the user should depend on that - but it does not imply a dependence to implementation of available protocols.

A transmission, a protocol or a flow

The first bad point of Conduit is terms used by it which are not really defined. A transmission, a protocol or a flow are not very clear and we can not strictly define the purpose of them with Conduit.

Tuyau wants to be clear on these words and it gives to us a true definition of them. Then, we will use them as Tuyau defines them.

A Protocol

A communication protocol is a system of rules that allows entities to transmit information. In the case of Tuyau, this kind of information must not be arbitrary. The protocol should only solve communication problems such as routing.

When we talk about a protocol, it's only about a standard which is able to transmit a payload. Interpretation of the payload is not done by the protocol but by the user of this library.

For example, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a protocol according to Tuyau because it is able to transmit payload without interpreting it. A counter example is the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) which gives an interpretation of the payload (such as EHLO which is different to QUIT).

This difference is important to unlock the ability to compose protocols. An other protocol according to Tuyau is Transport Layer Security (TLS) - which wants to solve privacy and data integrity. Tuyau is able to compose protocols together like TCP ∘ TLS to make a new protocol. From this composition, the user is able to implement Secure Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SSMTP) or HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) - both use TCP and TLS.


To be able to do this composition, the protocol must respect (at least) an interface: the FLOW interface. It defines an abstract type t and functions like recv or send. These functions give to us the payload. Rules to solve communication problems are already processed internally.

In other terms, from a given FLOW, the user should not handle routing, privacy or data integrity (or some others problems). The user should only be able to process the payload.

Finally, representation of a TCP protocol is a FLOW. VCHAN protocol or User Datagram Protocol (UDP) can be represented as a FLOW. However, TLS is not a flow as is but a layer on top of another protocol/~FLOW~. Composition with it should look like:

val with_tls : (module FLOW) -> (module FLOW)

From a given FLOW, we wrap it with TLS and return a new FLOW. Such a composition exists also for WireGuard or Noise layers. Tuyau wants to solve this composition by a strict OCaml interface of the FLOW.

About Conduit

These ideas already exist with Conduit_mirage.Flow and Conduit_mirage.with_tls. However, it appears 2 problems:

  • extension of implementations
  • composition with user-defined FLOW

Currently, Conduit delimits implementations by a polymorphic variants Conduit.{client,server}. We should not blame that when extensible variants appears only on OCaml 4.02.

Abstract! Abstract everything!

As we said, the most important idea is to be able to:

  1. abstract the flow
  2. still be able to use it to receive and send payload

In your first example, we return an Unix.socket which is obviously not good, especially if we want to make an unikernel (which can not usually have anythings from the Unix module). In this way, we already did an interface to be able to easily abstract our implementations: mirage-flow.

We say that any protocols like TCP or VCHAN can be described with this interface where we have the recv function and the send function. So, instead to return a concrete type, we return an abstract type like:

module type FLOW = sig
  type t

  val recv : t -> bytes -> int
  val send : t -> string -> unit

type flow = Flow : 'flow * (module FLOW with type t = 'flow) -> flow
val resolve : Tuyau.t -> uri -> flow

let () =
  let Flow (flow, (module Flow)) =
    resolve tuyau "https://google.fr/" in
  Flow.send flow "Hello World!"

In our example, we use a GADT to keep the type equality between our value 'flow and the type t of our module Flow. We usually call it an existential type wrapper. It allows us to create a new type 'flow and associate it to an implementation Flow.

The idea behind is: the type t can concretely be anything. It can be an Unix.socket if we want to make an unikernel for Unix but it can be something else like a Tcpip_stack_direct.t (the TCP/IP implementation usually used by MirageOS).

With the associated module, we still continue to be able to read and write something as we can do with an Unix.socket.

And of course, we can forget about details. You can denote that we already prepare the concrete value to be able to communicate with our peer. I mean, resolve do something more complex than just create a new resource such as an Unix.socket. It connects the socket to our peer. It's why we talk about a resolution process.


Tuyau can not define by itself the resolution. Resolution is commonly a DNS resolution to get the IP from a domain-name. However, into an unikernel, nothing ensures that we properly have a DNS resolver (such as our /etc/resolv.conf).

In other side, definition of an endpoint can not fully exist where it depends on the returned 'flow. For example, if we give to you a TCP/IP Flow, used endpoint to connect your 'flow should be an IP and a port. However, the endpoint can represent something else like a serial-port connected to our MirageOS or a virtual network kernel interface (TUN/TAP), etc. Finally, definition of an endpoint is intrinsic to our implementation of the Flow.

Concretely, for an Unix.socket flow, we need an Unix.sockaddr. For a Tcpip_stack_direct.t flow, we need an Ipaddr.V4.t and an int as a port.

At the end, we agree that the most general (by convention) description of the endpoint is the domain-name. By knowing that, we decided to let the user to construct an endpoint from a concrete [`host] Domain_name.t (as Conduit decided to construct an Conduit.endp from an Uri.t).

How Conduit does that?!

Conduit do the same job where it wants to construct an endpoint (Conduit.endp) from an Uri.t. To choose which implementation we will use, it looks at the scheme of the Uri.t.

From our perspectives, this is not a good choice where the scheme is not a real definition of the underlying protocol used as it's explained into the RFC7595:

A scheme name is not a "protocol."

However, even if Conduit.endp should be extensible as Conduit.{client,server} (because they are intrinsic each other), they still are delimited by an exhaustive list of constructors:

type endp =
  [ `TCP of Ipaddr.t * int
  | `Unix_domain_socket of string
  | `Vchan_direct of int * string
  | `Vchan_domain_socket of string * string
  | `TLS of string * endp ]

type client = [ tcp_client | vchan_client | client tls_client ] 

Abstract, again!

Tuyau comes with an heterogeneous map to be able to let the user to define a resolve function which is able to return any (structurally different) endpoint. The user must create a type witness which corresponds to a value 't Tuyau.key and represents type of the endpoint.

With that, the user can register a resolve function which returns the same type as your 't Tuyau.key. In others words, we are able to provide:

type resolvers
type 't key

val key : name:string -> 't key
val register
  :  key:'t key
  -> ([ `host ] Domain_name.t -> 't)
  -> resolvers
  -> resolvers

By this way, the user is able to implement the resolution process and can use a DNS resolver or a fixed resolution table (like an Hashtbl.t). Tuyau needs to know who can create a concrete endpoint from a [ `host ] Domain_name.t to pass it to a protocol implementation. It's why you need to register your resolve function into our resolvers.

Finally, Tuyau will execute all of your resolvers and create a list of heterogeneous endpoints. Then, from them, it is able to try to start a transmission to your peer.

Give me the priority

Of course, resolver can be registered with a priority. By that, not only will we use your priority resolver, but we will also prioritize initialization of your associated protocol.

The idea is to let the user to prioritize secure transmission over unsecure transmission even if both are available (like https and http).

Tuyau by an example

Tuyau (and Conduit) wants to solve a difficult task which does not appear into usual cases. If you want to make an UNIX program, all of that is useless because we can directly use the UNIX environment.

However, for MirageOS where nothing exists (even a DNS resolver), we need a way to start a transmission according to the context of the compilation. In fact, the TCP/IP implementation depends on the target, the configuration of your unikernel, what the user wants, etc.

We will see a little example to fully understand the underlying Tuyau stack. What you should do as the maintainer of Git, as the developer of the protocol or basically as the user of Tuyau.

Register your protocol with Tuyau

To play with protocols, we must register our protocol to Tuyau. The registration is global to your program. Indeed, Tuyau is able to extract your implementation from anywhere - internally, we save it into a global Hashtbl.t.

Let's start to provide an UNIX TCP/IP protocol and register it into Tuyau!

module TCP = struct
  type flow = Unix.file_descr
  type endpoint = Unix.sockaddr

  let make sockaddr =
    let socket = Unix.socket Unix.PF_INET Unix.SOCK_STREAM in
    Unix.connect socket sockaddr ; socket

  let recv socket buf off len =
    Unix.read socket buf off len

  let send socket buf =
    let len = String.length buf in
    let _ = Unix.write socket (Bytes.unsafe_of_string buf) 0 len
    in ()

  let close socket = Unix.close socket

We must provide these functions into our module and 2 types:

  • the flow type
  • the endpoint type

From that, Tuyau (a specialized version according to your backend) provides a way to register your protocol globally. We must create our type witness about our endpoint and associate it with your protocol:

let sockaddr : Unix.sockadr Tuyau.key = Tuyau.key ~name:"sockaddr"
let tcp : Unix.file_descr Tuyau.protocol =
  Tuyau.register_protocol ~key:sockaddr (module TCP)

And it's enough! You probably should expose sockaddr and tcp. We will see where we can use it. But the registration is done into our internal & global Hashtbl.t. Any link with this piece of code will make your protocol available through Tuyau.

Register your resolver with Tuyau

Into another project/library/executable/unikernel, you are able to define your resolution process. Of course, you must link with unix_tcp to be able to use Unix_tcp.sockaddr and register your resolver with this type-witness - and it's why you should expose it into your interface.

Let's use an usual resolver:

let resolve_http domain_name =
  match Unix.gethostbyname (Domain_name.to_string domain_name) with
  | { Unix.h_addr_list; _ } ->
    if Array.length h_addr_list > 0
    then Some (Unix.ADDR_INET (h_addr_list.(0), 80))
    else None
  | exception _ -> None

This resolver wants to usually resolve a domain-name to an HTTP endpoint2. Of course, you can use something else like ocaml-dns instead Unix.gethostbyname to be compatible with MirageOS.

Then, we must fill Tuyau.resolvers with our resolve_http:

let resolvers = Tuyau.empty
let resolvers =
  Tuyau.register_resolver ~key:Unix_tcp.sockaddr resolve_http

You can not do a mistake between Unix_tcp.sockaddr and resolve_http. type-witness and returned value by resolve_http must correspond - otherwise, OCaml will complain with a type error which is nice!

Come back to Git!

From the maintainer of Git's perspective, all of previous codes is outside Git. As we said, we don't want to depend on an implementation of TCP/IP protocol (or a SSH implementation). However, we should depend on Tuyau.

Finally, the Tuyau core library defines only few things, the resolvers type and the 'a key type. By this way, in our library we can write something like:

let clone ~resolvers domain_name repository =
  let payload = Bytes.create 0x1000 in
  let Tuyau_unix.Flow (flow, (module Flow)) =
    Tuyau_unix.resolve ~resolvers domain_name in
  Flow.send flow (Fmt.strf "# git-upload-pack /%s.git" repository ;
  Flow.recv flow payload ;

Of course, we must choose a backend like LWT, ASYNC or UNIX to correctly deal with the scheduler about I/O operations. But for a MirageOS-compatible library, Tuyau_lwt should be enough.

And run all of that!

Come back to our main.ml where we filled your resolvers, we properly can do:

let resolve_http domain_name =
  match Unix.gethostbyname (Domain_name.to_string domain_name) with
  | { Unix.h_addr_list; _ } ->
    if Array.length h_addr_list > 0
    then Some (Unix.ADDR_INET (h_addr_list.(0), 80))
    else None
  | exception _ -> None

let resolvers = Tuyau.empty
let resolvers =
  Tuyau.register_resolver ~key:Unix_tcp.sockaddr resolve_http

let () =
  clone ~resolvers
    (Domain_name.(host_exn <.> of_string_exn) "github.com")

Finally, we manually defined our resolvers by hands, we used a specific implementation of the TCP/IP protocol (the UNIX one) and we magically/dynamically plug all of that to your Git implementation through Tuyau.

Go further with composition!

Of course, we can go further and provide a TCP + TLS implementation:

let sockaddr_and_tls_config, tcp_with_tls =
  Tuyau_tls.with_tls ~key:sockaddr (module TCP)

The composition gives to us 2 values:

  • the type-witness sockaddr_and_tls_config : Unix.sockaddr * Tls.Config.client. In fact, creation of a TCP + TLS connection is a bit more complex than TCP. We need a Tls.Config.client which verify certificate provided by the peer.
  • the type-witness tcp_with_tls : Unix.file_descr with_tls.

From that, we must provide an other resolver which give to us the Tls.Config.client:

let resolve_https domain_name =
  match resolve_http domain_name with
  | Some sockaddr ->
    let tls_config =
      Tls.Config.client ~authenticator:X509.Authenticator.null () in
    Some (sockaddr, tls_config)
  | None -> None

let resolvers =
  Tuyau.register_resolver ~priority:0 ~key:sockaddr_and_tls_config

With the priority, we can enforce to try at the first time the TCP + TLS transmission instead the TCP transmission - and by this way, prefer to use the secure one.

Again, this code still appears outside the Git implementation. We are able to fill Tuyau with a SSH implementation and fill the resolvers with a specific SSH configuration (like a set of private key like .ssh/config).

In our example, we use X509.Authenticator.null but we can restrict the authenticator to some internals certificates. Again, the way to resolve a domain-name is on the responsibility of the user.

Composition is not magic!

Composition with TLS or something else is not magic. It seems easy when we provide with_tls but we wrote the way to compose TLS with an other protocol - where we handled handshake, etc.

The composition is, at the end, a functor which takes a FLOW:

module With_tls (Flow : FLOW) = struct
  type endpoint = Flow.endpoint * Tls.Config.client
  type flow = Flow.endpoint * Tls.Engine.state


We just hidden it with a nice function and play a bit with first-class modules.

More possibilities on the user-side

One other request about Tuyau is to be predictable by the kind of flow used. Some maintainers want to enforce a secure flow such as SSH. In this case, of course, the maintainer should be aware about the implementation - and link with it.

The resolve function is much more complex than before on this way:

val resolver
  :  resolvers
  -> ?key:'edn key
  -> ?protocol:'flow protocol
  -> [ `host ] Domain_name.t -> flow

Optional arguments let the user to enforce a specific endpoint3 or a specific protocol (or both). When we advised to expose val tcp : Unix.file_descr Tuyau.protocol before, it's for this case. Imagine an SSH implementation where a val ssh : SSH.t Tuyau.protocol exists, the maintainer can write:

let clone ~resolvers domain_name repository =
  let payload = Bytes.create 0x1000 in
  let Tuyau_unix.Flow (flow, (module Flow)) =
    Tuyau_unix.resolve ~resolvers ~protocol:ssh domain_name in
  Flow.send flow (Fmt.strf "# git-upload-pack /%s.git" repository ;
  Flow.recv flow payload ;

By this way, we ensure to use SSH when we communicate to our peer.


As we said, Tuyau and Conduit a complex problem when we should have an easy way to start a transmission and be able to extend protocol implementations without a static dependency at the library level.

Composition is done by the possibility to give a nice interface such as with_tls with Tuyau. But, of course, it's not magic when maintainer of TLS/WireGuard/Noise should provide a way to compose such layers with a given FLOW.

Finally, it's hard to really understand the goal of Tuyau when, from the library, it's hard to reach the global view over protocols, users and finally the ecosystem. This article wants to give materials about that.


Tuyau provides something about the server-side which differs a lot from what Conduit does but we should explain that into an other article.



: It's not really true when a transmission over HTTP must be stateless. Smart over SSH differs too when it must expect a END-OF-LINE ('\n') at the end of each packet - this character is optional over TCP/IP.


: by HTTP endpoint, we enforce the port 80. Our UNIX TCP/IP flow is not an HTTP flow. However, an HTTP client must be connected to the port 80 over the TCP/IP protocol.


: A type-witness key can be used and re-used with many protocols. We can imagine a TCP/IP protocol and a UDP/IP protocol which use the same sockaddr type-witness.